Value Definition

An object value definition consists of sentences, which define the algorithm of the value evaluation.

Value Evaluation

An object value is evaluated on each request, unless it has a stateful type like variable or mutable array (not row). A client code may request the value evaluation to happen only once with eager reference.

The definition is evaluated in the scope of the object. So the same definition can evaluate to different value in another (derived) object:

A := integer (
  Value := 1
  = Value + 1
B := a (
  *Value (= 41)

Here objects A and B have the same definition, but different values: the value of A is 2, while the value of B is 42.

Definition Syntax

There are multiple ways to provide a definition for an object. Only a very basic ones represented here.

Field Value Expression

The simplest way to provide a value for an object, is to declare a field with an expression:

Integer constant := 1            ~~ Inherit `integer`, assign value `1`.
String constant := "value"       ~~ Inherit `string`, assign value `"value"`.
Negation := -a                   ~~ Unary operator.
Sum := a + b                     ~~ Binary operator.
Float constant := float '123.45' ~~ Phrase.

In this case an object ancestor is the same, as an ancestor of the expression result.


Within an object definition body the return statement can be used to provide a value for the object.

The syntax is:

'=' <value>

where <value> is an arbitrary expression producing the object value.


Integer (= 1)
String (= "value")
Foo (= a + b)


A value can be yielded with a yield statement, which has the following syntax:

'<<' <value>

where <value> is an arbitrary expression producing the object value.

The yield statement is similar to return one. But it returns evaluated value only once per object. The next time the same object’s value will be requested, the value evaluation will continue right after the yield statement.


Generator := (
  << 1
  << 2
  << 3
Print [generator, generator, generator] nl ~~ Prints `123`.

Conditional Values

A conditional definition can be used to provide multiple value alternatives. Only the first one, which precondition is met, will be used.

Here is an example of mathematical signum function declaration:

Signum :=> integer (
  Arg :=< integer ~~ Function input.
  Arg < 0? = -1   ~~ The value is `-1` if an input is negative.
  Arg > 0? = 1    ~~ Otherwise, the value is `1` if an input is positive.
  = 0             ~~ Otherwise, the value is `0`.

Note that conditions are tested in order of their appearance.