Every object inherits some other object called ancestor. This means an inherited object has the same fields as ancestor, and the same value type, unless overridden.

Ancestor Object Evaluation

An object inherits not just an ancestor object. In fact, it inherits an ancestor expression. An ancestor expression is evaluated once per object, in the scope of the enclosing object. When executed in different scopes, an ancestor expression can resolve to different objects.

A := void (
  Foo := void (
    F := 1
  Bar := foo

B := a (
  Foo = * (
    G := 2

An ancestor of b: bar, executed in the scope of enclosing object b will result to b: foo object, which contains a new field g. So an expression b: bar: g is valid and returns 2.

Note that when an object inherits an object from another module or inherits a static field, the ancestor expression is static and always resolves to the same ancestor object.


There are limitations of what could be inherited.

It is not possible to inherit an object, which structure is only known at run time. For example, it is not possible to inherit a link target, or variable value:

A := `1       ~~ A link.
B := a->(= 2) ~~ Link target can not be inherited.

An object can not inherit enclosing objects:

A ::= void (
  B := void (
    B ()     ~~ This is not possible, as `b` is enclosing object.
    A ()     ~~ This is also not possible.
    /A ()    ~~ This is possible, because it is an inheritance of
             ~~ static object `a`, not an enclosing object `a`.
    A: b ()  ~~ This is also possible, as this is an inheritance of
             ~~ field `b` of enclosing object `a`, not an enclosing object `b`.

Definition Inheritance

By default, the inherited object has the same definition as ancestor.

For example:

Ancestor := Integer (= 2)
Object := Ancestor

In this case object has the same definition as ancestor, i.e. its value is 2.

Note that definition depends on the execution scope. So, when inherited, it may result to a different value.


Ancestor := Integer (
  Arg 1 := 1
  Arg 2 := 2
  = Arg 1 * arg 2

Object := Ancestor (
  Arg 1 = * (= 2)
  Arg 2 = * (= 4)

Here object has value 8, despite it has the same definition as ancestor, which value is 2.

Definition Override

The definition can be overridden in inherited object.

For example:

Ancestor := Integer (= 2)
Object := Ancestor (= 3)

In this case the object definition is overridden, and its value is 3.

The value type of inherited object should remain the same. That is, if ancestor has an integer value, an inherited object can’t be updated to have a float one. The only exception is a void: it can be overridden with definition of any type. That’s how Integer object inherits Void despite it has a different value type.


Every field present in ancestor is propagated to inherited object and can be overridden.

Note that despite private fields are propagated to inherited object, they are not accessible and thus can not be overridden.

Also, an inherited object may declare new fields.


Ancestor := void (
  Foo := 2
Object := ancestor (
  Foo = * (= 3)      ~~ Override field "foo" declared in "ancestor".
  Bar := "new field" ~~ Declare new field "bar".